In our classical texts genetics is best described by Acharya Susruta and Acharya Caraka in Sharira Sthana. Ayurveda identified three genetic units in the form of Beej (Germinal cell), Beejbhag (Chromosome) and Beejbhagavyava (Gene). Sushruta has classified hereditary and congenital types of disease such as: sthaulya, klaibya, prameh and other disease. Acharya Charak has described first about the component of Beej whether of male or female and designated them as Beejbhag and Beejbhagavayav. Adibalapravritta diseases, groups of illnesses which are attributed defects inherent in either the Shukra or Shonita which form the primary factors of Human being. Acharya Charaka has explained further that teratologic abnormalities depend upon the condition of beeja, not on the physical status of the couple. In other words, what so ever part of Beeja is defective, the body part developing from that portion of beeja will be abnormal. He has described that due to vikriti of bija, bijabhaga and bijabhagavayava of the couple, there will be vikriti in the child depending on gender. When the Beejbhag in ovum is responsible for the development of Garbhashaya is excessively vitiated, then woman gives birth to Bandhya (sterile) female child and similarly when the part of the Beej which is responsible for the production of the sperm in the foetus is excessively vitiated, then this gives birth to a male sterile child. When the Beejbhagavayav of the mother is excessively vitiated she gives birth to a Putipraja (who delivers dead fetus) and in case of same condition in sperm, it gives birth to a Putipraj.
Keywords: Beejbhag, bheejbhagavyav, bandhya, putipraja, adibalpravitta
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